The right method of breaking a colt needs no description at our hands.[1] As a matter of state organisation,[2] cavalry duties usually devolve upon those who are not stinted in means, and who have a considerable share in the government;[3] and it seems far better for a young man to give heed to his own health of body and to horsemanship, or, if he already knows how to ride with skill, to practising manouvres, than that he should set up as a trainer of horses.[4] The older man has his town property and his friends, and the hundred-and- one concerns of state or of war, on which to employ his time and energies rather than on horsebreaking. It is plain then that any one holding my views[5] on the subject will put a young horse out to be broken. But in so doing he ought to draw up articles, just as a father does when he apprentices his son to some art or handicraft, stating what sort of knowledge the young creature is to be sent back possessed of. These will serve as indications[6] to the trainer what points he must pay special heed to if he is to earn his fee. At the same time pains should be taken on the owner's part to see that the colt is gentle, tractable, and affectionate,[7] when delivered to the professional trainer. That is a condition of things which for the most part may be brought about at home and by the groom--if he knows how to let the animal connect[8] hunger and thirst and the annoyance of flies with solitude, whilst associating food and drink and escape from sources of irritation with the presence of man. As the result of this treatment, necessarily the young horse will acquire--not fondness merely, but an absolute craving for human beings. A good deal can be done by touching, stroking, patting those parts of the body which the creature likes to have so handled. These are the hairiest parts, or where, if there is anything annoying him, the horse can least of all apply relief himself.

The groom should have standing orders to take his charge through crowds, and to make him familiar with all sorts of sights and noises; and if the colt shows sign of apprehension at them,[9] he must teach him--not by cruel, but by gentle handling--that they are not really formidable.

On this topic, then, of training,[10] the rules here given will, I think, suffice for any private individual.

[1] Or, "The training of the colt is a topic which, as it seems to us, may fairly be omitted, since those appointed for cavalry service in these states are persons who," etc. For reading see Courier, "Notes," p. 84.

[2] "Organisation in the several states."

[3] Or, "As a matter of fact it is the wealthiest members of the state, and those who have the largest stake in civic life, that are appointed to cavalry duties." See "Hippparch," i. 9.

[4] Cf. "Econ." iii. 10.

[5] {ego}. Hitherto the author has used the plural {emin} with which he started.

[6] Reading {upodeigmata}, "finger-post signs," as it were, or "draft in outline"; al. {upomnemata} = "memoranda."

[7] "Gentle, and accustomed to the hand, and fond of man."

[8] Lit. "if he knows how to provide that hunger and thirst, etc., should be felt by the colt in solitude, whilst food and drink, etc., come through help of man."

[9] Or, "is disposed to shy."

[10] Or, "In reference to horsebreaking, the above remarks will perhaps be found sufficient for the practical guidance of an amateur."