D. H. Lawrence
About the Author
English novelist, story writer, critic, poet and painter, one of the greatest figures in 20th-century English literature. Lawrence's doctrines of sexual freedom arose obscenity trials, which are still part of the relationship between literature and society. He saw sex and intuition as a key to undistorted perception of reality and a way unburden individual's frustrations and maladjustment to industrial culture. In 1912 he wrote: "What the blood feels, and believes, and says, is always true." The author's frankness in describing sexual relations between men and women upset a great many people. Lawrence's life after World War I was marked with continuous and restless wandering.
David Herbert Lawrence was born in Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, in central England. He was the fourth child of a struggling coal miner who was a heavy drinker. His mother was a former schoolteacher, greatly superior in education to her husband. Lawrence's childhood was dominated by poverty and friction between her parents. In a letter from 1910 to the poet Rachel Annand Taylor he later wrote: "Their marriage life has been one carnal, bloody fight. I was born hating my father: as early as ever I can remember, I shivered with horror when he touched me. He was very bad before I was born." Encouraged by his mother, with whom he had a deep emotional bond and who figures as Mrs Morel in his first masterpiece, Lawrence became interested in arts. He was educated at Nottingham High School, to which he had won a scholarship. He worked as a clerk in a surgical appliance factory and then four years as a pupil-teacher. After studies at Nottingham University, Lawrence matriculated at 22 and briefly pursued a teaching career at Davidson Road School in Croydon in South London (1908-1911). Lawrence's mother died in 1910 - he helped her die by giving her an overdose of sleeping medicine. This scene was re-created in his novel SONS AND LOVERS.
In 1909 a number of Lawrence's poems were submitted by Jessie Chambers, his childhood sweetheart, to Ford Madox Ford, who published them in English Review. The appearance of his first novel, THE WHITE PEACOCK, launched Lawrence as a writer at the age of 25. In 1912 he met Frieda von Richthofen, the professor Ernest Weekly's wife and fell in love with her. Frieda left her husband and three children, and they eloped to Bavaria and then continued to Austria, Germany and Italy. In 1913 appeared Lawrence's novel Sons and Lovers, which was based on his childhood and contains a portrayal of Jessie Chambers, the Miriam in the novel and called 'Muriel' in early stories. When the book was rejected by Heinemann, Lawrence wrote to his friend: "Curse the blasted, jelly-boned swines, the slimy, the belly-wriggling invertebrates, the miserable sodding rutters, the flaming sods, the sniveling, dribbling, dithering, palsied, pulse-less lot that make up England today."
In 1914 Lawrence married Frieda von Richthofen, and traveled with her in several countries in the final two decades of his life. Lawrence's fourth novel, THE RAINBOW (1915), was about two sisters growing up in the north of England. The character of Ursula Brangwem was partly based on Lawrence's teacher associate in Nottingham, Loui Burrows. She was Lawrence's first love. The novel was banned for its alleged obscenity - it used swearwords and talked openly about sex. Over1000 copies of the novel were burned by the examining magistrate's order. The banning created further difficulties for him in getting anything published. Also his paintings were confiscated from an art gallery. John Middleton Mutty and Catherine Mansfield offered Lawrence their various 'little magazines' for his texts. An important patron was Lady Ottoline Morrell, wife of a Liberal Member of Parliament. Through her, Lawrence formed relationships with several cultural figures, among them Aldous Huxley, E.M. Forster, and Bertrand Russell, with whom he was later to quarrel bitterly.
Lawrence started to write THE LOST GIRL (1920) in Italy. He had settle with Frieda in Gargano. In those days they were so poor that they could not afford even a newspaper. The novel dealt with one of Lawrence's favorite subjects - a girl marries a man of a much lower social status, against the advice of friends, and finds compensation in his superior warmth and understanding. He dropped the novel for some years and rewrote the story in an old Sicilian farm-house near Taormina in 1920.
During the First World War Lawrence and his wife were unable to obtain passports and were target of constant harassment from the authorities. They were accused of spying for the Germans and officially expelled from Cornwall in 1917. The Lawrences were not permitted to emigrate until 1919, when their years of wandering began.
In the 1920s Aldous Huxley traveled with Lawrence in Italy and France. Between 1922 and 1926 he and Frieda left Italy to live intermittently in Ceylon, Australia, New Mexico and Mexico. These years provided settings for several of Lawrence's novels and stories. In 1924 the New York socialite Mabel Dodge Luhan gave to Lawrence and Frieda the Kiowa Ranch in Taos, receiving is return the original manuscript of Sons and Lovers. In an essay called 'New Mexico' (1928) he wrote that "New Mexico was the greatest experience from the outside world that I have ever had." He felt that it liberated him from the present era of civilization - "a new part of the sopul woke up suddenly, and the old world gave way to a new." After severe illness in Mexico, it was discovered that he was suffering from life-threatening tuberculosis. From 1925 the Lawrences confined their travels to Europe.
Lady Chatterley's Lover - Constance Chatterley is married to Sir Clifford, a mineowner in Derbyshire. A war wound has left him impotent and paralyzed. Constance has a brief affair with a young playwright and then enters into a passionate relationship with Sir Cliffords gamekeeper, Oliver Melloers. Connie becomes pregnant. Sir Clifford refuses to give a divorce and the lovers wait for better time when they could be united. - One of the models for the cuckolder-gamekeeper was Angelino Ravagli, who received half the Lawrence estate after Frieda's death. "Necessary, forever necessary, to burn out false shames and smelt the heaviest ore of the body into purity."
Lawrence's best known work is LADY CHATTERLY'S LOVER, first published privately in Florens in 1928. It tells of the love affair between a wealthy, married woman, and a man who works on her husband's estate. The book was banned for a time in both UK and the US as pornographic. In UK it was published in unexpurgated form in 1960 after a obscenity trial, where defense witnesses included E.M. Forster, Helen Gardner and Richard Hoggart. Lawrence's other novels from the 1920s include WOMEN IN LOVE (1920), a sequel to Rainbow. The characters are probably partially based on Lawrence and his wife, and John Middleton Murray and his wife Katherine Mansfield. The friends shared a house in England in 1914-15. Lawrence used the English composer and songwriter Philip Heseltine as the basis for Julius Halliday, who never forgave it. When a manuscript of philosophical essays by Lawrence fell into Heseltine's hands - no other copies of the text existed - he used it as toilet tissue. According to an anecdote, Lawrence never trusted the opinions of Murray and when Murray told that he believed that there was no God, Lawrence replied, "Now I know there is."
AARON'S ROAD (1922) shows the influence of Nietzsche, and in KANGAROO (1923) Lawrence expressed his own idea of a 'superman'. THE PLUMED SERPENT (1926) was a vivid evocation of Mexico and its ancient Aztec religion. THE MAN WHO DIED (1929), first published under the title The Escaped Cock, was a bold version of the story of Christ's resurrection. Instead to have Christ to go to heaven, Lawrence has him mate with the priestess of Isis. Lawrence's non-fiction works include MOVEMENTS IN EUROPEAN HISTORY (1921), PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE UNCONSCIOUS (1922), STUDIES IN CLASSIC AMERICAN LITERATURE (1923) and APOCALPSE (1931).
D.H. Lawrence died in Vence, France on March 2, 1930. Frieda (d. 1956) moved to the Kiowa Ranch and built a small memorial chapel to Lawrence; his ashes lie there. In 1950 she married Angelino Ravagli, a former Italian infantry officer, with whom she had started an affair in 1925. Jake Zeitlin, a Los Angeles bookseller, who first took care of Lawrence's literary estate, summarized his feeling when he first saw the author's manuscripts: "That night when I first opened the trunk containing the manuscripts of Lawrence and as I looked through them, watched unfold the immense pattern of his vision and the tremendous product of his energy, there stirred in me an emotion similar to that I felt when first viewing the heavens with a telescope." Lawrence also gained posthumous renown for his expressionistic paintings completed in the 1920s.
Most author biographies courtesy of Author's Calendar. Used with permission.